Common words and phrases

Asymptomatic: to have no symptoms of disease; evidence of disease is not noticeable by the patient

Aqueous humor: the clear fluid that flows through and fills the space in front of the lens of the eye. It nourishes the lens and cornea and helps maintain pressure within the eye. Increased intraocular pressure and glaucoma can result when the aqueous humor cannot drain normally.

Chronic: a disease having a long duration, typically a lifelong condition that can be treated but not cured

Cornea: the transparent, bowl-shaped structure at the front of the eye covering the iris and the pupil

Cupping: the indentation in the optic disc; cupping can increase (deepen) over time as a result of progression of glaucoma disease

Diminishes: reduces; lessens

Disease progression: the worsening of a disease characterized by increased tissue or organ damage and/or worsening of symptoms (eg, worsening vision)

Elevated IOP: raised or increased intraocular pressure; high eye pressure

Glaucoma: a group of eye diseases (many different types) resulting in damage to the optic nerve; usually involves high eye pressure; can lead to blindness

Glaucomatous: related to or affected by glaucoma

Gradual: changing little by little over time

High eye pressure: increased pressure within the eye; may be called increased intraocular pressure, or high IOP, by the doctor

Hyperemia: conjunctival hyperemia is the medical term for increased eye redness

IOP: intraocular pressure; the pressure within the eyes

Irreversible: not able to be corrected; permanent

LUMIGAN® 0.01%: an eyedrop medication used to lower high eye pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

mm Hg: millimeters of mercury; how eye pressure (IOP) is measured

Normal-pressure glaucoma: a type of open-angle glaucoma in which eye pressure is within normal range, yet the optic nerve is still damaged and there is a visual field defect; also called low-tension or normal-tension glaucoma

Ocular hypertension: consistent elevated eye pressure; high IOP but without any detectable visual field defect or optic nerve damage

Open-angle glaucoma: the most common form of glaucoma; typically involving chronic high eye pressure, optic nerve damage, and visual field loss

Ophthalmoscope: a medical device used to view the interior of the eye (including the optic nerve head)

Optic disc: area in the back of the eye where the optic nerve leaves the eye

Optic nerve: the nerve that carries visual images from the eye, specifically the retina, to the brain

Perimetry test: a test that measures an individual’s visual field (range of vision); also called visual field test

Peripheral vision: area of view that is not the center focus; eg, side vision or what you may see “out of the corner of your eye”

Primary: the first or of the highest rank of importance

Retina: the innermost layer of the eye; sends visual images as electrical messages through the optic nerve to the brain

RGCs: retinal ganglion cells; found in the retina, convert images received into electrical messages, and then send those messages to the optic nerve

Risk factor: a medical, hereditary, or behavioral characteristic associated with increased likelihood of developing a disease

Tonometry: a type of test used to measure eye pressure

Visual field: the entire field of vision, central and peripheral; measured by a perimetry test

Visual field defect: a missing area or spot in the visual field; in patients with glaucoma, the first sign of visual field defect typically occurs in the peripheral or side vision

Visual field loss: in patients with glaucoma, it is the deterioration of vision over time; typically, the side or peripheral vision is lost first, characterized by a narrowing of what is seen outside of center focus